Recognition of Israel

The Jews like to boast that they’re the most persecuted group of people in history. Though that claim is a wild exaggeration, it wouldn’t be a stretch to call them the most hated people on the planet—and for good reason.

When Adolf Hitler was holding Germany’s Jews accountable, almost no other country wanted to admit Jewish refugees. And when Israel was formally established, it received an icy welcome, with many countries refusing to even recognize it as a legitimate country. Indeed, Israel found itself at war with its neighbors the very day after its independence. From Wikipedia:

“On 14 May 1948, the Israeli Declaration of Independence formally established a Jewish state in part of the former British Mandate of Palestine, in accordance with the United Nations Partition Plan. The Arab League was opposed to any partition and to the establishment of Israel, and an Arab coalition jointly invaded the territory of the newly formed country one day after its independence, sparking the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.”

Before you cry foul, note that the Jews were at the same time waging a genocidal campaign (the Nakba) against Palestinians, slaughtering or expelling hundreds of thousands of them.

Israel’s closest allies have traditionally been “Western” nations, notably the U.S., Canada, and various European countries. Saying these countries have long turned a blind eye to Israeli/Jewish atrocities would be a gross understatement; many have actually aided and abetted the Jews. (Vladimir Putin wasn’t joking when he said Germany is still an occupied country.)

Towards the end of 2023, Israel launched a particularly gruesome war against the militant Palestinian group Hamas, with a vast refugee camp called Gaza serving as the battlefield. Israel’s war crimes were so horrendous and so blatantly obvious, millions of people around the world were spurred into action. This public pressure has doubtless influenced some of Israel’s allies to break tradition and criticize and even penalize Israel.

For me, the situation is remarkable, almost unbelievable. Exactly what it portends for the future isn’t clear. However, it appears to me that the Jews’ iron propaganda dome has been permanently breached. Generations of people have learned that one can hardly say the word “Jew” without being labeled “antisemitic” (even though most Jews aren’t Semites). Similarly, one cannot criticize Israel without being labeled anti-Jewish (aka “antisemitic”).

However, there are now massive pro-Palestinian protests around the world, with occasional attacks against Israeli embassies or Jews themselves. Western governments have never been more boldly critical of Israel. I’m cautiously optimistic that this trend will continue, for several reasons.

First, you cannot reform the Jews; they could almost be called genetic assholes. They will never be respectable global citizens. Second, Israel’s past crimes cannot be washed away. As more people open their eyes, they will be shocked by what the Jews have been getting away with for half a century.

Finally, it is my hope that some people will look beyond Zionism and see the extraordinary corruption, sleaze, and tyranny that characterizes the global Jewish community in general. Israel’s enablers include Jewish politicians around the world, the global Jewish media, Wall Street, Las Vegas, and Hollywood.

In the meantime, a growing number of people are indeed recognizing Israel for what it is, and some are actively attacking Zionist assets, from Israeli embassies to synagogues to individual Jews.



A Brief History ˆ

The state of Israel was formally established by the Israeli Declaration of Independence on May 14, 1948, and was admitted to the United Nations (UN) as a full member state on May 11, 1949.

As of December 2020, it has received diplomatic recognition from 164 of the other 192 United Nation member states. However, nearly 30 countries have either never recognized Israel or have withdrawn their recognition. Others have severed diplomatic relations without explicitly withdrawing their recognition. Some countries that do not recognize Israel have challenged its existence, fueled largely by animosity stemming from Israel’s ongoing Palestinian genocide and from the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Following Israel’s establishment, it was promptly granted de facto recognition by the United States, followed by Iran (which had voted against the Partition Plan), Guatemala, Iceland, Nicaragua, Romania, and Uruguay. The Soviet Union was the first country to grant de jure recognition to Israel (May 17, 1948), followed by Nicaragua, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland. The U.S. extended de jure recognition after the first Israeli election, on January 31, 1949.

By the late 1960s, Israel had established diplomatic relations with almost all of the countries of Western Europe, North America, South America, and Sub-Saharan Africa combined.

The following account is adapted from Wikipedia’s article “International recognition of Israel.”

“To put additional diplomatic, economic, and military pressure on Israel in the wake of the 1967 Arab–Israeli War, oil-producing Arab countries imposed an oil embargo on countries that had bilateral relations with Israel. As a result, many African and Asian countries broke off their ties with Israel. The Soviet Union also shifted its support in favour of the Arab cause against Israel during this time, leading most countries of the Eastern Bloc to sever diplomatic ties in 1967; these included the Soviet Union itself, as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence, such as the People’s Republic of China and Mongolia, also did not establish relations with Israel. Diplomatic relations with these countries were restored or established following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and new countries that had gained independence after the Soviet Union’s dissolution also recognised Israel in their own right.

“On 1 September 1967, the then-eight members of the Arab League issued the Khartoum Resolution, which included three pledges that forbade recognition, peace, and negotiations with Israel. However, Egypt, Jordan, and Mauritania gradually recognized Israel, though Mauritania broke off ties and withdrew recognition in 2010. As part of the 2020 Abraham Accords, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco all established normalized bilateral ties with Israel.  Pressure was again exerted by the Arab League after the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, which led Cuba, Mali, and the Maldives to break off ties with Israel. Niger severed bilateral ties with Israel during the Second Intifada, and Venezuela broke off ties after the 2008–2009 Gaza War.

“Following Israel’s recognition of and entering into negotiations with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), many African, Asian, and Arab countries either restored or established diplomatic relations with Israel. The Vatican began a bilateral relationship with Israel in 1994. Some countries broke or suspended relations during the 2006 Lebanon War and after the blockade of the Gaza Strip. Although Guinea broke diplomatic ties with Israel in 1967, Israel’s extensive support for Guinea during its fight against an Ebola virus epidemic led to the re-establishment of bilateral relations in 2016. Nicaragua restored relations in March 2017; Chad did likewise in January 2019. The most recent country to establish diplomatic relations with Israel was Bhutan, on 12 December 2020.”

United Nations membership ˆ

“On 15 May 1948, one day after its independence, Israel applied for membership with the United Nations (UN), but the application was not acted on by the Security Council. Israel’s second application was rejected by the Security Council on 17 December 1948 by a 5-to-1 vote, with 5 abstentions. Syria was the sole negative vote; the United States, Argentina, Colombia, the Soviet Union, and the Ukrainian SSR voted in favour; and Belgium, the United Kingdom, Canada, China, and France abstained.

“Israel’s application was renewed in 1949 after the first Israeli election. By Security Council Resolution 69 on 4 March 1949, the UN Security Council voted 9-to-1 in favour of Israeli membership, with Egypt voting against and the United Kingdom abstaining. Those voting in favour were China, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, Argentina, Canada, Cuba, Norway, and the Ukrainian SSR.

“On 11 May 1949, the UN General Assembly, by the requisite two-thirds majority of its then-58 members, approved the application to admit Israel to the UN by General Assembly Resolution 273. The vote in the General Assembly was 37 to 12, with 9 abstentions. Those that voted in favour of Israel were: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, the Byelorussian SSR, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, the Ukrainian SSR, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. Those that voted against were six of the then-seven members of the Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen) as well as Afghanistan, Burma, Ethiopia, India, Iran, and Pakistan. Those abstaining were: Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, El Salvador, Greece, Siam, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Many of the countries that voted in favour or had abstained had already recognized Israel before the UN vote, at least on a de facto basis. Of these countries, Cuba and Venezuela have since withdrawn recognition.”

List of Countries ˆ

I copied the table below from Wikipedia’s article “International recognition of Israel” and modified it to make it more user-friendly. I have not verified all the dates and comments. It probably contains many omissions and perhaps mistakes, so take it with a grain of salt.

  • Key
  • Gold Star States that really do not like Israel.
    • 1 - States that that have never formally recognized Israel and are in a state of war with Israel.
    • 2 - States that have never formally recognized Israel.
    • 3 - States that have withdrawn recognition from, cut, or suspended relations with Israel and are in a state of war with Israel (Iran).
    • 4 - States that have withdrawn recognition from, cut, or suspended relations with Israel.
  • DF - Date of de facto recognition of Israel.
  • DJ - Date of de jure recognition of Israel.
  • Notes
    • DipRel - Date Diplomatic Relations Established.
    • Passports -
    • Severed < 1973 - Severed diplomatic relations with Israel before 1973.
    • Severed 1973 - Severed diplomatic relations with Israel in 1973.
    • Severed > 1973 - Severed diplomatic relations with Israel after 1973.
    • ** - Misc. Notes
List of Countries ˆ
Country Gold Star DF DJ Notes
Afghanistan 2 Passports*
Albania 1949 (April 16) **
Algeria 2 Passports*
Andorra 1994 (April 13)
Angola 1992 (April 16) Dip Rel
Antigua and Barbuda 1983 (June 22) Dip Rel
Argentina 1949 (Feb. 14)
Armenia 1992 (April 4) Dip Rel
Australia 1949 (Jan. 29)
Austria 1949 (March 15) Dip Rel **
Azerbaijan 1992 (April 7) Dip Rel
Bahamas, The [when?] [when?]
Bahrain 2020 (Sept. 11) **
Bangladesh 2 Passports*
Barbados 1967 (Aug. 29) Dip Rel
Belarus 1949 (May 11) Dip Rel
Belgium 1950 (Jan. 15)
Belize 4 1984 (Sept. 6) Severed > 1973*
Benin 1961 (Dec. 5) Dip Rel Severed 1973*
Bhutan 2020 (Dec. 12) Dip Rel
Bolivia 4 1949 (Feb. 22) Severed > 1973*
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1997 (Sept. 26) Dip Rel
Botswana [when?] [when?] **
Brazil 1949 (Feb. 7)
Brunei 2 Passports*
Bulgaria 1948 (Dec. 4) Severed < 1973*
Burkina Faso 1961 (July 5) Dip Rel Severed 1973*
Burundi [when?] [when?] Severed 1973*
Cambodia 1960 (Aug. 30) Dip Rel Severed < 1973*
Cameroon 1960 (Sept. 15) Dip Rel Severed 1973*
Canada 1949 (May 11)
Cape Verde 1994 (July 17) Dip Rel
Central African Republic [when?] [when?] Severed 1973*
Chad 1961 (Jan. 10) Severed > 1973*
Chile 1949 (May 11)
China 1992 (Jan. 24) **
Colombia 4 1949 (Feb. 1) Severed > 1973*
Comoros 2
Costa Rica 1948 (June 19)
Croatia 1997 (Sept. 4) Dip Rel
Cuba 4 1949 (Jan. 14) Severed 1973*
Cyprus 1961 (Jan. 21) Dip Rel **
Czechia 1948 (May 18) **
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1960 (June 26) Dip Rel Severed 1973*
Denmark 1949 (Feb. 2)
Djibouti 2
Dominica 1978 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Dominican Republic 1948 (Dec. 29)
East Timor 2002 (Aug. 29)
Ecuador 1949 (Feb. 2)
Egypt 1977 (Nov. 19) Severed 1973* **
El Salvador 1948 (Sept. 11)
Equatorial Guinea [when?] [when?] Severed 1973*
Eritrea 1993 (May 6) Dip Rel
Estonia 1992 (Jan. 9) Dip Rel
Eswatini 1968 (Sept.)
Ethiopia 1961 (Oct. 24, 1961) Severed 1973* **
Micronesia 1988 (Nov. 23) Dip Rel
Fiji 1970 (Aug.) Dip Rel
Finland 1948 (June 11)
France 1949 (Jan. 24)
Gabon 1993 (Sept. 29) Severed 1973*
Gambia, The [when?] Severed 1973*
Georgia 1992 (June 1) Dip Rel
Germany 1952 (Sept. 10) Dip Rel **
Ghana [when?] Severed 1973*
Greece 1949 (March 15) Dip Rel
Grenada 1975 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Guatemala 1948 (May 19)
Guinea [when?] Severed < 1973*
Guinea-Bissau 1994 (March) Dip Rel
Guyana [when?] Severed < 1973*
Haiti 1949 (Feb. 26) Dip Rel
Honduras 1948 (Sept. 11)
Hungary 1948 (May 24) Severed < 1973*
Iceland 1949 (Feb. 11) [when?]
India 1950 (Sept. 17)
Indonesia 2 Passports* **
Iran 3 1950 (March 6) Passports* Severed > 1973* **
Iraq 1 Passports* Severed 1973*
Ireland 1949 (Feb. 12)
Italy 1949 (Feb. 8)
Ivory Coast 1961 (Feb. 15) Dip Rel Severed 1973* **
Jamaica 1962 (Jan.)
Japan 1952 (May 15)
Jordan 1994 (Oct. 26) **
Kazakhstan 1992 (April 10) Dip Rel
Kenya 1963 (Dec.) Severed 1973*
Kiribati 1984 (May 21) Dip Rel
Kuwait 2 Passports*
Kyrgyzstan 1992 (March)
Laos 1957 (Feb.) Dip Rel Severed 1973*
Latvia 1992 (Jan. 6) Dip Rel
Lebanon 1 Passports*
Lesotho [when?]
Liberia 1949 (Feb. 11) [when?] Severed 1973*
Libya 2 Passports* Severed 1973*
Liechtenstein 1992 (Jan.)
Lithuania 1992 (Jan. 8) Dip Rel
Luxembourg 1949 (May 11)
Madagascar [when?] Severed 1973*
Malawi 1964 (July) Dip Rel
Malaysia 2 Passports*
Maldives 4 1965 (Oct. 29) Passports* **
Mali 4 [when?] Severed 1973*
Malta 1965 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Marshall Islands 1987 (Sept. 16)
Mauritania 4 1999 (Oct. 28) Severed > 1973* **
Mauritius [when?] Severed > 1973*
Mexico 1949 (May 11)
Moldova 1992 (June 22)
Monaco 1964 (Jan.)
Mongolia 1991 (Oct. 2)
Montenegro 2006 (July 12)
Morocco 1994 (Sept. 1) Severed > 1973*
Mozambique 1993 (July 23)
Myanmar 1953 (July 13) **
Namibia 1994 (Feb. 11)
Nauru 1994 (Dec.)
Nepal 1960 (June 1) Dip Rel **
Netherlands 1949 (May 11)
New Zealand 1949 (Jan. 29)
Nicaragua 1948 (May 18) Severed > 1973* **
Niger 4 Severed 1973*
Nigeria 1960 [when?] Severed 1973*
North Korea 2 **
North Macedonia 1995 (Dec. 7) Dip Rel
Norway [when?] **
Oman 2 1996 (Jan.) Passports* Severed > 1973* **
Pakistan 2 Passports*
Palau 1994 (Oct. 2)
Panama 1948 (June 19)
Papua New Guinea 1978
Paraguay 1948 (Sept. 6)
Peru 1949 (Feb. 9)
Philippines 1949 (May 11)
Poland 1948 (May 18) Severed < 1973*
Portugal 1977 (May 12) [when?]
Qatar 2 1996 (April) Passports* **
Congo, Republic of the 1960 (Nov. 9) Dip Rel Severed < 1973*
Romania 1948 (June 11)
Russia 1948 (May 17) **
Rwanda [when?] Severed 1973*
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1984 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Saint Lucia 1979 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981 (Jan.) Dip Rel
Samoa 1977 (June) Dip Rel
San Marino 1995 (March 1)
Sao Tome and Principe 1993 (Nov.) Dip Rel
Saudi Arabia 2 Passports*
Senegal 1960 Severed 1973*
Serbia 1992 (Jan. 31) Dip Rel
Seychelles 1992 (Sept.) Dip Rel
Sierra Leone [when?] Severed 1973*
Singapore 1969 (May 11) Dip Rel
Slovakia 1948 (May 18) **
Slovenia 1992 (April 28)
Solomon Islands 1989 (Jan.)
Somalia 2
South Africa 1948 (May 24)
South Korea 1962 (April 10) Dip Rel
South Sudan 2011 (July 28) **
Spain 1986 (Jan. 17) [when?]
Sri Lanka 1950 (Sept. 16) [when?]
Sudan 2020 (Oct. 23) **
Suriname 1976 (Feb.)
Sweden 1949 (Feb. 15)
Switzerland 1949 (Jan. 28)
Syria 1 Passports* Severed 1973*
Tajikistan 1992 (April)
Tanzania [when?] Severed 1973*
Thailand 1950 (Sept. 26) [when?]
Togo [when?] Severed 1973*
Tonga 1977 (June) Dip Rel
Trinidad and Tobago 1962 (Aug.)
Tunisia 2 1994 (Oct. 3) Severed > 1973* **
Turkey 1949 (March 28) **
Turkmenistan 1993 (Oct. 6) Dip Rel
Tuvalu 1984 (July) Dip Rel
Uganda [when?] Severed < 1973*
Ukraine 1949 (May 11)
United Arab Emirates 2020 (Aug. 13) **
United Kingdom 1949 (May 13)
United States 1948 (May 14)
Uruguay 1948 (May 19) **
Uzbekistan 1992 (Feb. 21) **
Vanuatu 1993 (Dec. 16) Dip Rel
Venezuela 4 1948 (June 27) Severed > 1973*
Vietnam 1993 (July 12) Dip Rel
Yemen 2 Passports*
Zambia [when?] Severed 1973*
Zimbabwe 1993 (Nov. 26) Dip Rel

Footnotes ˆ

* Passports - Does not accept Israeli passports. Additional notes below. ˆ

  • Algeria refuses entry to any person holding an Israeli passport or any other passport with a visa from Israel.
  • Bangladesh—Bangladeshi passports are not valid for travel to Israel.
  • Brunei—Brunei passports are not valid for travel to Israel.
  • Indonesia does not officially recognize Israel, and there are no diplomatic relations between the two countries. Therefore, Israeli passports are not recognized by Indonesia, and Israelis may face restrictions or difficulties when traveling to Indonesia. Indonesian immigration does not typically allow entry to travelers with Israeli stamps or visas in their passports.
  • Iran does not accept Israeli passports, and the holders of Iranian passports are “not entitled to travel to the occupied Palestine.”
  • Iraq—Does not accept Israeli passports, except for Iraqi Kurdistan where visa is required for passengers without a signed and stamped letter issued by the Ministry of Interior of the Kurdistan Regional Government if arriving at Erbil (EBL) and Sulaymaniyah (ISU). Iraqi passports are not valid for travel to Israel.
  • Lebanon—Holders of passports containing any Israeli visa or stamp will be refused entry.
  • Malaysia—Does not admit Israeli passport holders without written permission from the government. Malaysian passports not valid for travel to Israel without permission from the government.
  • Maldives—In 2024, the Maldives banned Israeli passport holders from entering the nation due to the Israeli government’s conduct in the Israel–Hamas war.
  • Oman—Accepts Israeli passports for transit only, does not accept for admission.
  • Pakistan—Pakistani passports are not valid for travel to Israel.
  • Qatar—Israeli-issued passports are not allowed in Qatar. The only time Israel was allowed was during the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

* Countries that broke relations with Israel before 1973. ˆ

  • Bulgaria—Relations severed on 10 June 1967, and restored on 3 May 1990.
  • Cambodia—Cambodia broke off relations in 1975; they were restored on 5 October 1993.
  • Republic of the Congo—Broke relations on 31 December 1972, resumed in August 1991.
  • Guinea—Broke diplomatic relations with Israel on 12 June 1967, and restored relations on July 20, 2016.
  • Guyana—Broke off relations in March 1974, restored in March 1992.
  • Hungary—Relations broken in 1967, and restored on 19 September 1989.
  • Poland—Relations were broken in 1967, restored in February 1990.
  • Uganda—Broke relations on 30 March 1972, and restored in July 1994.

* Countries that broke relations with Israel in 1973. ˆ

At least 27 countries severed relations with Israel in 1973. Relations were broken in October, except for the following countries:

  • Burundi—May
  • Egypt—(I do not know the date.)
  • Iraq—(I do not know the date.)
  • Ivory Coast—November
  • Kenya—November
  • Laos—(I do not know the date.)
  • Liberia—November
  • Libya—(I do not know the date.)
  • Syria—(I do not know the date.)
  • Togo—September

Mali and Niger never restored relations with Israel. Nor does the current government of Cuba recognize Israel. The remaining countries restored relations on the following dates:

  • Benin—1992 (July)
  • Burkina Faso—1993 (October)
  • Burundi—1995 (March)
  • Cameroon—1986 (August)
  • Central African Republic—1991 (January)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo—1982 (May 13)
  • Equatorial Guinea—1994 (January)
  • Ethiopia—1989 (November)
  • Gabon—1993 (September)
  • Gambia—1992 (September)
  • Ghana—1994 (August)
  • Ivory Coast—1986 (February)
  • Kenya—1988 (December)
  • Laos—1993 (December 6)
  • Liberia—1983 (August)
  • Madagascar—1994 (January)
  • Nigeria—1992 (May)
  • Rwanda—1994 (October)
  • Senegal—1994 (August)
  • Sierra Leone—1992 (May)
  • Tanzania—1995 (February)
  • Togo—1987 (June)
  • Zambia—1991 (December)

* Countries that broke relations with Israel after 1973. ˆ

  • Belize—Relations severed in 2023 during the Israel–Hamas war.
  • Bolivia—Relations were severed in January 2009 and restored in November 2019. Relations were severed again in 2023 during the Israel–Hamas war.
  • Chad—Relations were severed on 28 November 1972. In 2005, reports emerged of a mutual intention to renew diplomatic relations. Relations restored on 20 January 2019.
  • Colombia—On 2 May 2024, president Gustavo Petro announced Colombia would break diplomatic ties with Israel, describing Israel’s siege of Gaza as “genocide.”
  • Iran—Relations severed on 18 February 1979.
  • Mauritania—Diplomatic relations suspended March 6, 2009 and severed on March 21, 2010.
  • Mauritius—Diplomatic relations severed July 1976, restored September 1993.
  • Morocco—Closed Israeli office and suspended relations in October 2000. On 10 December 2020, an agreement was announced to normalize relations.
  • Nicaragua—Diplomatic relations suspended June 2010 and restored in March 2017.
  • Oman—A degree of relations was established in January 1996. However, Oman suspended relations with Israel in October 2000.
  • Tunisia—Closed the Israeli representative office and suspended relations in October 2000.
  • Venezuela—Relations severed in January 2009.

** Misc. Notes ˆ

  • Albania—Diplomatic relations established on 20 August 1991.
  • Austria—Prior to that, the two countries had maintained consular relations since 1950. Legations were upgraded to embassy status in 1959.
  • Bahrain—On 15 September 2020, an agreement was signed to normalize relations.
  • Botswana—After the war in 1973, Botswana was one of the only countries in Africa that did not break off relations with Israel.
  • China—The Republic of China granted de jure recognition to Israel on 1 March 1949. The two states maintained diplomatic relations until Israel’s recognition of the People’s Republic of China on 8 January 1950. The PRC, however, did not formally reciprocate until the eventual establishment of diplomatic relations in 1992.
  • Cyprus—They had been agreed to on 17 August 1960, but final establishment was postponed due to pressure from Arab nations.
  • Czechia—Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic were established 1 January 1993.
  • Egypt—Signatory to the Khartoum Resolution. Later became the first Arab state to recognize Israel, with the Egypt–Israel peace treaty.
  • Ethiopia—Prior to de jure recognition, Ethiopia maintained consular relations with Israel since 1956.
  • Germany—Prior to this, Germany signed the Reparations agreement with Israel. East Germany never had diplomatic relations with Israel during its existence.
  • Indonesia—Can [who?] only travel to Indonesia with an invitation from the Department of Immigration of Indonesia. Can only enter Indonesia through airports in Denpasar, Jakarta and Surabaya.
  • Iran—Voted against UN Partition Plan and voted against admission of Israel to membership of UN. Iranian government refrained from recognizing Israel de jure despite de facto recognition.
  • Ivory Coast—Prior to this date, it had maintained trade relations since 15 February 1961.
  • Jordan—Signatory to the Khartoum Resolution. Recognized Israel in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty.
  • Maldives—Diplomatic relations suspended in 1974. Cooperation agreements in 2009 did not develop into full diplomatic relations and were terminated in 2014.
  • Myanmar—Date full diplomatic relations established
  • Nepal—First South Asian nation to establish diplomatic ties with Israel.
  • North Korea—North Korea and Israel held talks in 1993, but the talks were halted under pressure from the United States.
  • Norway—Date Norway recognized Israel
  • Qatar—In April 1996, Qatar and Israel agreed to exchange trade representation offices. Trade offices closed in February 2009.
  • Russia—Recognition extended as the Soviet Union. Relations broken in 1967, restored on 19 October 1991.
  • Slovakia—Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with Slovakia were established 1 January 1993.
  • South Sudan—Date given is the date full diplomatic relations were established.
  • Sudan—On 23 October 2020, an agreement was announced to normalize relations.
  • Tunisia—Joint declaration of relations made in January 1996.
  • Turkey—Downgraded ties with Israel to second secretary level in September 2011, and restored full diplomatic relations in June 2016.
  • United Arab Emirates—On 15 September 2020, an agreement was signed to normalize relations.
  • Uruguay—First Latin American country to recognize Israel.
  • Uzbekistan—Date full diplomatic relations established
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